DURGA MAHISHASURAMARDINI, C.1300, STONE, 1.75M (H), FROM THE TOWER-TEMPLE AT CANDI SINGOSARI, EAST JAVA. RIJKSMUSEUM VOLKENKUNDE, LEIDEN, NETHERLANDS. PHOTO: L. PULLEN – TAASA Review March 2013
were traded into Java and Sumatra in huge quantities, they are not necessarily the direct source of inspiration for these carved patterns.
There has clearly been a transmission of culture reflected in the motifs carved on these sculptures, whether from China or India remains open to discussion – and certainly a local interpretation of these `imported’ motifs.
This article suggests this developed in the context of interchange with Tibet and Yuan China as well as with the art of Pala and Sena in eastern India (c.750-1200)...